|Systems thinking is a discipline for seeing wholes. It is a framework
for seeing interrelationships rather than things, for seeing patterns
of change rather than static "snapshots." It is a set of general
principles -- distilled over the course of the twentieth century,
spanning fields as diverse as the physical and social sciences,
engineering, and management.... During the last thirty years, these
tools have been applied to understand a wide range of corporate,
urban, regional, economic, political, ecological, and even
psychological systems. And systems thinking is a sensibility -- for the
subtle interconnectedness that gives living systems their unique
~ Peter Senge
|Science and Theory
|So what is string theory? For that matter, what the heck are elementary particles? If this all sounds totally confusing,
check this site out. It includes Experiments, Black Holes, Cosmology, Mathematics, History, and much more.
|After you read about the Wave Interference experiments, click on the Table of Contents tab. There are interactive
demos, and here is a small list of theories explained: Einstein's Legacy ~X-Rays, Electromagnetic Theory, Quantum
Mechanics, X-Ray and DNA Adv, Electromagnetic Theory R, Standing Wave, Standing Wave Resonance, Effect of
Electric Forces on Water, Creating a Laser. WOW!
|In 1801, Young began a series of experiments that addressed a phenomenon known as interference. He observed
that when light from a single source is separated into two beams, and the two beams are recombined, the combined
beams produce a pattern of light and dark fringes. Young concluded that these fringes were the result of the beams of
light behaving as waves with their peaks and troughs either reinforcing one another or canceling each other. When
this occurred, alternating lines of light and dark resulted.,,,,,
|In 1800 he became a secretary of the Manchester Literary and Philosophical Society, and in the following year he
presented the important paper or series of papers, entitled Experimental Essays on the constitution of mixed gases;
on the pressure of steam and other vapors at different temperatures, both in a vacuum and in air; on evaporation; and
on the thermal expansion of gases.
The second of these essays opens with the striking remark,
"There can scarcely be a doubt entertained respecting the reducibility of all elastic fluids of whatever kind, into
liquids; and we ought not to despair of affecting it in low temperatures and by strong pressures exerted upon the
unmixed gases further."
After describing experiments to ascertain the pressure of steam at various points between 0 ° and 100°C (32° and
212°F), he concluded from observations on the vapor pressure of six different liquids, that the variation of vapor
pressure for all liquids is equivalent, for the same variation of temperature, reckoning from vapor of any given
|In 1897 the physicist Joseph John (J. J.) Thomson (1856–1940) discovered the electron in a series of experiments
designed to study the nature of electric discharge in a high-vacuum cathode-ray tube—an area being investigated by
numerous scientists at the time. Thomson interpreted the deflection of the rays by electrically charged plates and
magnets as evidence of "bodies much smaller than atoms" that he calculated as having a very large value for the
charge to mass ratio. Later he estimated the value of the charge itself. In 1904 he suggested a model of the atom as a
sphere of positive matter in which electrons are positioned by electrostatic forces. His efforts to estimate the number
of electrons in an atom from measurements of the scattering of light, X, beta, and gamma rays
|The Einstein Archives Online Website provides the first online access to Albert Einstein’s scientific and non-scientific
manuscripts held by the Albert Einstein Archives at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem and to an extensive Archival
Database, constituting the material record of one of the most influential intellects in the modern era.
The site allows viewing and browsing of approx. 3,000 high-quality digitized images of Einstein’s writings, available
for viewing in two sizes: a standard resolution image, as well as a high-resolution image for closer inspection.
|A consummate experimentalist, Ernest Rutherford (1871–1937) was responsible for a remarkable series of discoveries
in the fields of radioactivity and nuclear physics. He discovered alpha and beta rays, set forth the laws of radioactive
decay, and identified alpha particles as helium nuclei. Most important, he postulated the nuclear structure of the atom:
experiments done in Rutherford's laboratory showed that when alpha particles are fired into gas atoms, a few are
violently deflected, which implies a dense, positively charged central region containing most of the atomic mass.
|Following in his father's footsteps, in 1916, Bohr became a professor at the University of Copenhagen. In 1920, he
became director of the newly constructed "Institute of Theoretical Physics" and was awarded the Nobel Prize in
Physics in 1922 "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from
After 1930, Bohr's activities in his Institute were focused on research on the constitution of the atomic nuclei and of
their transmutations and disintegrations. He also contributed to the clarification of the problems encountered in
quantum physics, which is discussed in several essays written between 1933 and 1962.
|One of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century. He is best known as a founder of quantum mechanics, the new
physics of the atomic world, and especially for the uncertainty principle in quantum theory. He is also known for his
controversial role as a leader of Germany's nuclear fission research during World War II. After the war he was active in
elementary particle physics and West German science policy.
|In the early 1950's, a graduate student at Princeton University, Hugh Everett, puzzled over the Copenhagen
interpretation and the magical collapse of the wave function, and decided that it made more sense to treat each
outcome of every possible quantum event as existing in a real world. In the classic example of Schrodinger's cat, this
means that if the experiment really were carried out, the Universe would divide into two worlds, in one of which the
experimenter opened the box to find a dead cat, and in the other of which the experimenter opened the box to find a
live cat. Encouraged by his thesis supervisor, John Wheeler, Everett developed his idea into a fully worked-out
interpretation of quantum theory, and showed that the assumption that all of the quantum possibilities are real leads
to exactly the same predictions for the outcome of experiments as the Copenhagen interpretation...
|In 1935 Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen began the EPR Experiment Theory arguing that it was possible for
communication to travel faster that the speed of light, thus making theories of quantum mechanics flawed. In 1974
EPR was carried out by Alain Aspect successfully, validating quantum theory by showing that the two particles are
linked and that the act of observing particle A instantly affected particle B irrespective of the distance between them.
Today this research continues, get the history and current evolution on this site......
|One of the foremost theoretical physicists of his generation and one of the most influential theorists of the emerging
paradigm through which the world is increasingly viewed. Bohm's challenge to the conventional understanding of
quantum theory has led scientists to re-examine what it is they are doing and to question the nature of their theories
and their scientific methodology. He brought together a radical view of physics, a deeply spiritual understanding and
a profound humanity.
|An inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer, and electrical engineer. Tesla is recognized among the most innovative
engineers of the late 19th century and early 20th century. His patents and theoretical work form the basis of modern
alternating current electric power (AC) systems, including the polyphase power distribution system and AC motor,
which helped usher in the Second Industrial Revolution.
Check out this site with all his scientific papers listed.
|Dr. Michio Kaku is the co-founder of String Field Theory, and is the author of international best-selling books such as
Hyperspace, Visions, and Beyond Einstein.
During the last part of his life and work, Albert Einstein was on a quest to find the "theory of everything", an equation
perhaps only an inch long that would unify all four fundamental forces of the universe. Dr. Michio Kaku has continued
this quest, and is the co-founder of string field theory, a leading candidate in the search for a "theory of everything".